No science beyond the things about balance, color, proportion that you'd think about in standard graphic design. The only complication is that you have to remember that the placement graphic will be on a body and often worn with other things, so that might be a factor in how you design a graphic, too.
Different brands approach branding in different ways. Take three extremely different case studies.
Givenchy has developed a very recognizable design signature with large-scale, sublimation-dye digital prints, often referencing Renaissance and other classical art periods with distinctive additions/edits like the Bambi-collage prints. They don't really need to brand their products because the nature and quality of the print makes it obvious who made it.
Streetwear-oriented brands that sit at a much lower price point don't necessarily have that sort of pull and influence in the larger marketplace given that they face a much larger pool of competitors at the same price point, so explicit branding may be necessary to protect their product as well as to establish a visual identity that customers can easily pick out. Add in the fact that you can trademark a logo, but that you can't copyright a general design and it becomes more important for a smaller, less exclusive brand to maintain consistent branding to differentiate their products.
Then you have people who kind of do it their own way and CdG PLAY is a good example. The branding has become synonymous with the brand, but they play with the branding itself, distorting it, repeating it, changing it, moving it, etc. so that even though their branding is maintained throughout in some ways, it's also tweaked in others so that there is a broader design vocabulary.
There's no right or wrong way to do it, only the smart way that makes sense for any given business.
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