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>be viking fucking shit
>Franks cut you a deal to settle some sweet land and protect their coasts
>convert to Christianity
>become knights and monarchs
>conquer the British Isles
>conquer Southern Italy
>at forefront of the Crusades
>serve as renowned mercenaries all over the world
How did they do it?
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>>1523580
That helmet on the right is baller. What's it called?
>>
>>1523580
>be norman knight on pilgrimage in Mezzogiorno
>have a reputation as fierce knights
>local Lombard princes ask for your assistance in fighting saracen fucking shits and smelly greeks
>send letters to home to all your extended family "Ay yo, dese niggas got gold and shieet, come on over errbody"
>normans start arriving in troves like fucking romanis or something

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>>1523580
>vikings
>being a thing
when will this end

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Despite some Christians (particularly Catholics) not taking the Genesis narrative literally (that is, the fable concerning the serpent and the fruit), the Catechism of the Church still teaches that Adam and Eve's transgression - whatever it was, since the eating of the fruit is held to be 'metaphorical' - caused "Adam and Eve [to] transmit to their descendants human nature wounded by their own first sin and hence deprived of original holiness and justice", as stated by the official Catechism.

Note, however, that it is also written that Cain dwelt...
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>>
What if

stay with me

what if

Ada
and
Eve

were

the metaphorical representation

of all men

and women

and not just two individuals?
>>
>>1523515
I would tell you to properly read the post, then. The Catechism of the Catholic Church - as approved by the Magisterium - states explicitly that Adam and Eve were real individuals, and that the only possible metaphor was the fable of the eating of fruit.

Most Christian denominations hold Eve and Adam to have had a literal existence, and it is only the story of the serpent and the fruit of the tree that is relegated to the realm of metaphor.
>>
>>1523532
Nowhere in your post does it say that though

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Throughout most of history, states relying on a professional standing force were enormously rare. Even when a state's primary military force was a corps of professional soldiers, you usually had them dispersed and non-mobilized until a campaign started, and often the monarch or other ruler tried to disband them at the end of hostilities.

A lot of this was obviously cost, but another big chunk of it was political control. One only needs to look at the Post-Marian Roman society to see how much trouble standing armies can be, and it wouldn't be terribly inaccurate...
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Bump, great question
>>
>>1523385
Nationalism?

I'm just talking out of my ass, but maybe these standing armies of smaller nation states had a stronger sense of national identity and pride in serving their state than the Roman legions did serving a giant multiethnic empire and conversely the legions revolved more around cults of personality of their leaders than the empire itself? Idk
>>
Rise in the standard of living. Why revolt when you can just get paid your fair share and fuck off to live in peace?

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>During the Battle of the Somme the Ulster Division was the only division of X Corps to have achieved its objectives on the opening day of the battle. This came at a heavy price, with the division suffering in two days of fighting 5,500 officers and enlisted men killed, wounded or missing.
>War correspondent Philip Gibbs said of the Division, "Their attack was one of the finest displays of human courage in the world.
>Of nine Victoria Crosses given to British forces in the battle,...
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natural selection, for centuries only the finest warriors could repel the irish barbarians
>>
>>1523381
First post best post
>>
>>1523381
kek

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>And Jacob took him rods of green poplar, and of the hazel and chesnut tree; and pilled white strakes in them, and made the white appear which was in the rods. And he set the rods which he had pilled before the flocks in the gutters in the watering troughs when the flocks came to drink, that they should conceive when they came to drink. And the flocks conceived before the rods, and brought forth cattle ringstraked, speckled, and spotted.
And Jacob took him rods of green poplar, and of the hazel and chesnut tree; and pilled white strakes in them,...
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Only shitty protestant churches in the American south/southeast insist upon the anti-intellectualism and new earth horseshit. Catholicism and the Vatican recognizes tons of new scientific discoveries that contradict the bible's explanation.
>>
>>1523323
What a fucking absurd conclusion.

>Does the God Who made DNA understand it?
>>
>>1523340
>Evil churches agree with satan's evil world about how things really are.

>t. scientific delusion

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Could someone clear things up on history of the Quran and Muslims in general? I think Mohammed is a very interesting figure, however, would the recognize the Quran if he was alive today?
As far I understand, the Quran was revealed to him between years 610 and 630, but the Quran itself was not officially published until few decades after Mohammed's death.
Also how come Imam Ali had one finished only half a year after Muhammed's death but was rejected? Was Ali not one of the closest to Mohammed?
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>>1523283
Muhammad never existed
>>
>>1523283
We can't tell why Ali's quran was rejected, unless we can actually read it. Most probale reasons would be his comentary was not fit for the political, social or religious theme of that era. But looking at the number of his teachings mentioned in hadith says otherwise.
>>
Before it was written, it were to be memorised. These people were Hafiz, there are still many of the Hafiz today. The Prophet selected young and intelligent scholars to do this.
However, some verses in the Quran are time related, they were only validated in a specific time period. Some verses are even neglected because of some of the Hadith. In the Quran it states that it would be lawful for one to eat anything from the sea. Yet, some knowledgeable scholars did not permit the act of eating foods like Shrimp, various crustaceans, shark etc.

I'm a well knowledged...
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Leaving aside the the validity of their claims, who made the strongest case compelling a person to care about their philosophy? Scariest boogeyman, greatest prize, etc.
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>>1523230
Leaving aside the validity of their claims?

Nietzsche probably, just because he reaches your soul with his writing.
>>
>>1523230
>who made the strongest case compelling a person to care about their philosophy?
I dunno about your metric here but probably the most "universally relevant" philosopher is Kant because out of his idealism comes all modern political ideologies
>>
Aristotle, who laid the foundations of logic and reason, from which all philosophies would rise, especially the enlightenment philosophies.

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Give me one reason why society or "the greater good" should ever come before the individual. Pro tip: you can't.
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you need a balance between the 2

Nationalism is the answer
a collective group whose common identity gives them enough cohesion to allow personal freedoms

anything else you either have Despotic States like absolute monarchies and communism or Anarchism and Tribalism
>>
>>1523224

Game theory.

Co-operation is the best strategy for maximising the well being of the individual.
>>
>>1523245

only with in-group preferences

in-group preferences eventually wins with total cooperation by not reciprocating the total cooperation group's support

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Why do we need philosophy when everything can be solved by science and math?
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>>1523177
solve that question with science and math.
>>
>>1523177
What would a society ruled by science and math look like? Technocracy?
>>
>>1523211
No humans.

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Hey /his/torians i have a question about egyptian gods. Did the egyptians think of their gods as real human-like beings who had relations and interactions with each other like the greeks did?
Or did they think of them more as a concept or a symbol for e.g. the sun or the nile.
Did they actually believe there was some being with the head of a jackal?
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All I know on this matter is Egyptians were crazy about symbolism. Their names and titles had different meanings at the same time, e.g being a "shooter" meant you were good at archery and ejaculated alot. Hieroglyphs are a form of symbolism in writing using pictures instead of words. Anubis with the head of a jackal was most likely derived from the jackals which would consume the dead and hung around dead bodies or people about to die.
>>
all the egyptian gods are real and the stories are to be believed, simple as that. why do you think meme magic is happening ? kek
>>
>>1523168
You know the Greek gods sometimes used to have sex with the Egyptian gods. Hell most of them were considered different names for the same dude. Thoth's temple was called Hermopolis for a reason, that isn't what the Egyptians called it.

They were both both, they are personifications.

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Hey /his/ i have to write a paper about any point in history in korea. Im a weeb and really have mainly studied japanese history so i don't know any interesting points in korean history. Does any have any suggestions?
pic unrelated
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>>1523133
Play Civ 5 as sejong, and read the intro screen. That's a you need to know.
>>
>>1523133
inb4 hyper war
>>
>>1523133

Do the Japanese invasion of Korea then. I assume you know at least a little bit about it.

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Can there ever be pure empiricism outside Mathematics?
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>Can there ever be

Should there ever be?
>>
>outside Mathematics?

Did you confuse empiricism for rationalism?
>>
>>1523137

sorry
I think that I explained myself wrong
can you ever receive pure knowledge trough senses outside Mathematics?

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What dose /his/ think about Arthur Harris ?
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>be German
>get melted
>>
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"The Nazis entered this war under the rather childish delusion that they were going to bomb everyone else, and nobody was going to bomb them. At Rotterdam, London, Warsaw, and half a hundred other places, they put their rather naive theory into operation. They sowed the wind, and now they are going to reap the whirlwind."

What did he mean by this
>>
>>1523088

Primarily ineffective. I'm going to skip over the morality of the Strategic Bombing campaign, in large part because I don't have a coherent enough moral framework to pass that kind of judgment, and stick to pure military efficacy, which I at least think I have a better handle on.

Offensive air war has something that's traditionally been much harder to use strategically than it ought to be, at least during the interwar period and even during the early part of WW2. Sure, everyone agrees that...
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what went right
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>>1522960
venice approves
>>
>>1522960
The Eternal Latin.
>>
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>>1522960
>what went right
>the armanians
>(literally)

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What is a good online source to understand the creation and execution of the medieval and spanish inquisitions ?

How were they formed ?
What were their targets ?
How did they operate ?
Who was in charge of an inquisition ?

For example I'm curious about the rank of the priests who were responsible of an inquisition, also did they have knights or men at arms under their command to enforce their decisions ?

What are the most important things to know about them ?
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>>1522876
>What are the most important things to know about them ?
Only about 2,000 people in total were killed [Spanish Inquisition, Henry Kamen]
This kills the anti-Spaniard.
>>
Holy Inquisition was made to root out crypto-muslims and crypto-jews that were commiting terrorism in Spain and less extent Portugal
the Inquisition had preseumption of innocence and a structure of courts
Protestant countries killed more people on religious grounds than the Inquisition because each parish could acuse people and condemn them to death, thousands of gingers were killed in protestant countries
fucking heretics
>>
read Kamen

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Is he right? "Laughter was something considered for the lower orders" seems like a ridiculous claim to me, but it could be true.
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>>1522755
How come Shakespeare wrote so many comedies, then?
>>
Maybe in England. English elites were incredibly stuck up no fun allowed puritans while French writers were perfecting the art of irony.
>>
Maybe at one point among the English aristocracy but I'm not an expert on that.

I do know a bit more than the average person about Scottish nobility and royals and since the early 15th century Scottish kings would pal around with common people and booze up and tell jokes and stuff. James V even owned a joke book. So his use of "British" is probably mistaken.

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What went wrong?
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>>1522693

first things

you using parajews flag
>>
>>1522693
Too much.
>>
The wealth of Rome became increasingly concentrated into the hands of wealthy patricians until plebeians were so poor that they didn't give a damn whether Rome rose or fell.

The rich gradually acquired all the land, like by simply taking it while the poor land owners were away fighting for Rome, and then working the land with the relatively constant flow of slaves from conquests. Eventually most of the population were just poor sweatshop workers in the heart of Rome subsisting off of porridge made from grain government handouts from Egypt.

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>mfw saved the Empire from filthy barbarians
>your nephew outshined you.
>people remembered him over you
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Caesar is more famous than Augustus you sperg.
>>
>>1522567
There was no empire, you double nigger. Augustus is remembered because he founded the empire. Caesar did not save the Republic but end it with his dictator for life schtick.
>>
Literally everyone knows Caesar

There is reason why every 'argument that proves the existence of God' can be logically refuted. They latch onto inherently contradictory presuppositions.

1. God exists and is omnipotent and omniscient and has guides the universe by a) authoring the physical constants that govern nature and b) sometimes actively intervenes in the universe on the behalf of His believers

2. Humans have freedom of will

3. Humans can become aware of the existence of God

1 & 2 cannot both be true, ever. If God intervenes in the universe, you don't have...
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What if the reason for god knowing is different grasp of time? Your future, your past, your present might all be his now.


Either way, not seeking to debate this. I don't know much. And I don't think anyone truly understands freedom of will.
>>
There's lots of good arguments against god. This isn't one of them. Because, much like C. S. Lewis wrote, god could simply see time differently than we do. Him knowing what you'll pick doesn't mean you're not free to act otherwise.

Because to us we see A, B, and then C. It's linear. God would see A, AA, AAA, AB, ABB, ABBB, and every single variation possible that you could pick or think of. It's all "now" to him. Because god is claimed to be beyond time.

As for freedom of will. It's like saying if I could understand...
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>muh nad

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>still on the throne

Does she really hate her son that much? Will this hag outlived her son ?
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I don't think charlie's all that bothered tbqh
>>
How old is she now? 100?
Fuck man, medicine has advanced a lot
>>
I think she's a vampire, actually

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What would have happened if the iberian people failed in the reconquest?

>Portugal and Spain would have never exist.
>It would have been a fully islamic iberian peninsula since 700.
>All America would be christian or muslim(depends on which arrive first). The same with the language.

But i really think the european nations would work together to reconquer the iberian peninsula because you cant simply have the enemy that near.

If you think about the possibilities,...
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>>1522475
all of africa would probably be muslim right now and it would be one synthe'd unified strain.

siberia would be speaking english.
>>
>>1522478
Well, all of Africa is muslim, or at least the most of it.

Maybe the country that retook iberia would not have stopped there and tried to expand their influence to north africa to take full control of the mediterranean sea.
>>
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>>1522475

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I need help /his/

>thinking about converting to Catholicism from Baptist

>like confession
>like the history, culture and tradition associated with the church
>like the strict moral standards

>think the idea of the pope is bullshit
>think saints and purgatory are retarded
>understand how the church has routinely been corrupted for material and...
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>>1522469
Become an Anglo-Catholic. None of it is true so just do what feels right.
>>
>tfw think the concept of a god existing is foolish but want the moral stability and experience of being religious
>considering becoming Catholic

What do
>>
>>1522499

Kind of the modern dilemma isn't it?

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12 Nordic gods who sat on 12 thrones
12 Greek gods
12 Roman gods
12 tribes of Israel
12 apostles
12 signs of the zodiac
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>>1522222
Great digits, great question.
All in all, great post
>>
>>1522222
11 is too little and 13 is too many.
12 is just right.
>>
>>1522222
i dunno lol

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During WW1 were the allied breakthroughs in mid to late 1918 (such as the Battle of Amiens, Battle of Hamel and the Second Battle of the Somme) due to advances in tactics such as combined armed offensives and coordinated artillery, or was it due to the fact that the German army was suffering from attrition and manpower shortages after fighting on both the western and eastern fronts for so long?
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>>1522202
Both of course
>>
>>1522202
Entente were also suffering attrition and manpower shortages.
>>
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>>1522211
The US army wasnt

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Why did it fall?
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>>1522005
part of the big 4 naval supremacies
portugal, spain, england, netherlands.

why did they all fail? overextension, couldn't hold/consolidate gains. and if ur ever not sure, make ur bridges wood so u can burn them/scorched earth as you retreat else the vermin will follow you back like a vacuum in a black hole.

rome, america etc, foriegn imperialism
>>
>>1522005
>mine all the gold you can out of Central and South America
>declare banking usury and outlaw it

Spanish Economy Status: JUST
>>
>>1522024

lol idiot
even in it's peak the silver from the Americas was only 20% of the economy
the majority of the Empire's expenses was paid by the Crown of Castille alone

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ITT: countries that have literally no history

>were founded
>did nothing for a hundred years
>sent some boats over to the world wars - the ONLY relevant thing they've ever done
>...
>host an olympics
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>>1521863
Two Olympics thank you very much.
>>
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>>1521863
They're the international shitpost champs of the world.
>>
Don't forget losing a war against a few birds.

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Is revolution even possible in the modern state? Previously, great powers (France, Russia, Germany) could fall to revolution, but it seems impossible with the current armament gap between the general population and modern military technology. It would be highly improbable that revolutionaries could obtain aircraft and armored vehicles, much less know how to use them. And that doesn't begin to cover the disparity in resources between a revolutionary force and a federal government. Does the modern revolution hinge on a decayed or ill-equipped regime, or is it simply impossible?
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When the people are starving, anything can happen.

Asymmetrical warfare has proven highly effective, also.
>>
We have the Rojova revolution going on right now. Various people are coming up with ideas to overthrow governments. Enough people, enough anger and it'll happen.

Governments should be scared of their people. They fucking are.
>>
>>1521835
once you get a few generations deep of serving military personal relativistically more greatly benefiting from the scarcity surplus of their group collective activities they will eventually naturally as human nature do turn to enlightenment of their actions, leading to collectivist militeristic revolts from the top. military men wont shoot their own civilians. thats what criminals do. look at turkey for example. that is the seed of the next epoch of coupdetats

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Most autistic philosopher in history?
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>>1521832
>>
Nothing can outweigh german autism.
>>
Ayn Rand.

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What does /his/ think of civilization?

Agriculture is not sustainable in the long term, due to factors like soil erosion, crop-killing diseases and global warming eventually ruining agriculture because it is so weather dependent.

Civilization breeds diseases by having loads of animals in close proximity (especially with animals), dirty cities and shit like that. We're feeding drugs to animals causing resistance by pathogens.

Centralised damage to nature is much, much worse than decentralised damage to nature.

We're using fossil fuels because...
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>>
IV was the best
>>
>>1521828
goddammit
>>
VI looks fun

Hello /his/

I am not a frequent poster of this board, but I am intrigued by history.

I am here to ask how much of the "history" of WWII and Nazi Germany was fudged to help promote an ideology. Sorry if this question is dumb, but I really don't know where I can find any non-biased sources. I only have a highschool level of history and years of stuff I've seen randomly on the internet(not places like this.) Both of which do not seem reliable.
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It's all 100% true.
>>
>>1521769
>how much of the "history" of WWII and Nazi Germany was fudged to help promote an ideology

I assume you mean vilified in a "history is written by the victors" sort of way?
>>
>>1521793
yea


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