African history in general is underrated and the Mali Empire was the seat of Islamic power for centuries with several academies whilst Europe was busy slaughtering each other over religious differences.
The fact that everyone on this board is going "lol sand/mud castle" without addressing the question critically or even doing a little background reading on their own proves that moot was entirely correct and that no one here can handle a history board.
A lot of people, be they black or white, like to shit on Africa (intentionally or not) for having not real developmental progress until colonialism, but the state and society of the Malian empire proves them all wrong.
It was a mercantile state that traded slaves, gold, and salt into the Arab-Berber north and made a shitton of money from it, made all the more easier due to a complex river system that meant they could ship in stuff from the coast or inland to caravan trails, which only /they/ could really endure (a good number of Arab invasions into West Africa failed due to attrition) and as such made a lot of money. They used that money to fund learning, with Timbuktu becoming one of THE places for Islamic learning.
A lean towards slave raids and an empowered Morocco eventually broke their back though, and the rise of Islamism resulted in a lot of their landmarks being totaled. But there are accounts of the Sultan of Mali sending Egypt into inflation on his pilgrimage to Mecca because he threw so much wealth around.
I'd say, regardless of what happened, that was pretty successful.
Africa is the most underrated continent in general. Little is talked about how European explorers ransacked castles, monuments, art, and destroyed them. We now have a huge dearth in African history which has been used to unfairly criticize African people.
Archeology and research need to be revived in the African continent because we are missing a lot of information. Perhaps not all of it has been destroyed. Ethiopia still claims to have the Ark of the Covenant, for example.
>Dubois (who had seen the original mosque) revisited Djenné in 1910 and was shocked by the new building. He believed that the French colonial administration were responsible for the design and wrote that it looked like a cross between a hedgehog and a church organ. He thought that the cones made the building resemble a baroque temple dedicated to the god of suppositories.
>The king's palace or court is a square, and is as large as the town of Haarlem and entirely surrounded by a special wall, like that which encircles the town. It is divided into many magnificent palaces, houses, and apartments of the courtiers, and comprises beautiful and long square galleries, about as large as the Exchange at Amsterdam, but one larger than another, resting on wooden pillars, from top to bottom covered with cast copper, on which are engraved the pictures of their war exploits and battles..."
—Olfert Dapper, Nauwkeurige Beschrijvinge der Afrikaansche Gewesten, 1668
On the other hand you faggots are trying to hype some mud castle made 100 years ago just because it was built like Africans. That's proposterous you are treating Africans like a cat who just learned how to use the toilet.
The walls of the Great Mosque are made of sun-baked earth bricks (called ferey), and sand and earth based mortar, and are coated with a plaster which gives the building its smooth, sculpted look. The walls of the building are decorated with bundles of rodier palm (Borassus aethiopum) sticks, called toron, that project about 60 cm (2.0 ft) from the surface. The toron also serve as readymade scaffolding for the annual repairs. Ceramic half-pipes also extend from the roofline and direct rain water from the roof away from the walls.
The mosque is built on a platform measuring about 75 m × 75 m (246 ft × 246 ft) that is raised by 3 metres (9.8 feet) above the level of the marketplace. The platform prevents damage to the mosque when the Bani River floods. It is accessed by six sets of stairs, each decorated with pinnacles. The main entrance is on the northern side of the building. The outer walls of the Great Mosque are not precisely orthogonal to one another so that the plan of the building has a noticeable trapezoidal outline.
The prayer wall or qibla of the Great Mosque faces east towards Mecca and overlooks the city marketplace. The qibla is dominated by three large, box-like towers or minarets jutting out from the main wall. The central tower is around 16 meters in height. The cone shaped spires or pinnacles at the top of each minaret are topped with ostrich eggs. The eastern wall is about a meter (3 ft) in thickness and is strengthened on the exterior by eighteen pilaster like buttresses, each of which is topped by a pinnacle. The corners are formed by rectangular shaped buttresses decorated with toron and topped by pinnacles.
>>36839 The prayer hall, measuring about 26 by 50 meters (85 by 164 ft), occupies the eastern half of the mosque behind the qibla wall. The mud-covered, rodier-palm roof is supported by nine interior walls running north-south which are pierced by pointed arches that reach up almost to the roof. This design creates a forest of ninety massive rectangular pillars that span the interior prayer hall and severely reduce the field of view. The small, irregularly-positioned windows on the north and south walls allow little natural light to reach the interior of the hall. The floor is composed of sandy earth.
Bundles of rodier palm sticks embedded in the walls of the Great Mosque are used for decoration and serve as scaffolding for annual repairs. In the prayer hall, each of the three towers in the qibla wall has a niche or mihrab. The iman conducts the prayers from the mihrab in the larger central tower. A narrow opening in the ceiling of the central mihrab connects with a small room situated above roof level in the tower. In earlier times, a crier would repeat the words of the imam to people in the town. To the right of the mihrab in the central tower is a second niche, the pulpit or minbar, from which the iman preaches his Friday sermon.
The towers in the qibla wall do not contain stairs linking the prayer hall with the roof. Instead there are two square towers housing stairs leading to the roof. One set of stairs is located at the south western corner of the prayer hall while the other set, situated near the main entrance on the northern side, is only accessible from the exterior of the mosque. Small vents in the roof are topped with removable inverted kiln-fired bowls, which when removed allow hot air to rise out of the building and so ventilate the interior.
>>36846 The interior courtyard to the west of the prayer hall, measuring 20 m × 46 m (66 ft × 151 ft), is surrounded on three sides by galleries. The walls of the galleries facing the courtyard are punctuated by arched openings. The western gallery is reserved for use by women.
Though it benefits from regular maintenance, since the facade's construction in 1907 only small changes have been made to the design. Rather than a single central niche, the mirhab tower originally had a pair of large recesses echoing the form of the entrance arches in the north wall. The mosque also had many fewer toron with none on the corner buttresses. It is evident from published photographs that two additional rows of toron were added to the walls in the early 1990s.
>>33794 Africaboos are the worst, its always a repeat of the Emperor's New Clothes with these people, fawning over tribalism, stone and mud as if it was steel, marble, and glass, then someone points it out. But unlike the tale they feel no shame, just outrage that someone would oppose their worldview.
>>37049 >fawning over tribalism, stone and mud as if it was steel, marble, and glass
What objectively makes steel,marble and glass more superior than 'tribalism,stone and mud'. Civilization isn't measured by some arbitrary ladder of innovation and progress, it's not all about big buildings with shiny materials.
African history is very underrated and ignored. There were many kingdoms in pre colonial Sub-saharan Africa, but most historians are not interested and most of the world thinks they were just shitty tribes forever.
This guy is a historian who tries to recreate African armours. They had some strip iron armour similar to Roman segementata.
>Mali built a bunch of mudhuts and sandcastles >Romans built structures that after the fall of the empire people thought were built by gods because they couldn't fathom how a human being could create something like that Top kek
I'm going to post African swords here because they're neat.
>>39080 My only problem with African historians is that they tend to have an enormous chip on their shoulder and flip out and overcompensate, crediting all manner of bullshit to African societies and African peoples instead of being grounded in reality and working within established historical events. It's like they're all radicals.
Hannibal was black, Pharaohs were black, Jesus was black, everyone was fucking black.
>>39126 For me personally, [spoiler]I have nothing against Islam. I think it's a beautiful religion and culture that has been corrupted over the years by extremists and warlords. I hate what they did to the Library of Alexandria, but their advances in math, science and architecture are nothing to laugh at.[/spoiler]
But the reason I'm only interested in non-Abrahamic African cultures is because I'm studying all history for a fictional universe that I'm developing.
>>40090 >I hate what they did to the Library of Alexandria 1. The library of Alexandria wasn't destroyed in some singular cataclysmic event, it experienced a gradual period of decay over hundreds of years 2. By the time it was gone for good, there was basically nothing in it. Everything important had been copied or moved to other libraries 3. It was rebuilt, you can go to Egypt and visit it
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