How do I become politically/economically informed /lit/? Is there anything you can rec me that would give me a clear understanding of what capitalism and other economic systems are? Or in what way they relate to how a country is governed, regardless of where it is?
Visit /pol/ and ask to be "red pilled" on how the economy works.
read N. Gregory Mankiw's textbooks Principles of Microeconomics and Principles of Macroeconomics. Then read Why Nation's Fail. From there you can move on to the classics as you see fit to find out how the economic thinkers came to the conclusions they did, as you see fit. You can't go wrong with Fogel, Friedman, Hughes, Keynes, Mill, and Hayek.
study current events. this will lead you to ask why. then you will research history. this will lead you to ask how. then you will research political and economic concepts
everything in context. reading das kapital in a vacuum is meaningless.
The starting points here are fine but I think primary sources are super important until pretty late in your study. After you've read some introductory texts (including the basics of micro and macro) I would subscribe to a few economics blogs across a variety of political perspectives (I would recommend maybe Mike Konczal for a leftist and Scott Sumner for a conservative/libertarian, to start), which will help you understand the current issues and tenor of debate on them.
Keynes, Hayek, etc. are incredibly important but also not, for the most part, very clear or easy to read - they were written for specialists in the field, and much of their terminology is not what is used any more. Save them for last.
Believe it or not, your uneducated opinion on economics is as valid as that of someone with a phd in the field. Economics is a psuedoscience much like sociology. Politics falls in the category of philosophy which is also a pseudoscience. honestly your time would be better spent informing yourself of real science such as physics