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Archived threads in /sci/ - Science & Math - 256. page
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Dark energy is around 70% of the Universe's mass.
Gravity, on the otherhand, is a force, that makes space pull stuff inside itself (not suck it in).
If gravity was endless, then it would be infinity, and nobody likes infinity. So..
Dark gravity.
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>>8152523
Not 70% of the Universe's mass.
>>
Melanin is a pigment, that your skin produces. It comes in many colours, which are produced by getting energy from sunlight like plants get energy from sunlight by using chlorophyl.
I would call a melanin person a good person.
>>
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>>8152523
I'm also an idiot that believes gravity is a force.

>why don't these faggots perform pseudo-riemannian geometry

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i have to advance in probability and i'm stuck in this frustrating question.

one Student is tested in 2 tests,the probability from him to pass the first test is 65%.and the probability for him to pass both tests is 55%,and the probability for him to pass at least one test is 80%.

the part which im having trouble with is that 80% chance ,let A be the probability to pass the first test and let B be the probability to pass the second test, now from what i understood from the given is that
P(A ∩ B')+P(A' ∩ B)=80%.
is that correct?
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>>8152423
thank you i thought the same but im still having trouble finishing up my probability table ,if you know what i mean.
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>>8152423
Never mind if you don't,but can you give me your way of finding the probability for the student to pass the second test?
>>
>>8152414
That's incorrect. The probability for him to pass at least one test is P(A ∩ B') + P(A' ∩ B) + P(A ∩ B)

P(A ∩ B') + P(A' ∩ B) is the chance of him passing exactly one test.

The rest is simple algebra.

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What about her anatomy suggests she was bipedal?
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>>8152339
>I don't know jack shit about physiology, anatomy or osteology but for some reason this sounds contrived to me, so instead of finding out on my own if the evidence that backs said assumption is convincing enough, I'll snarkily share my skepticism on a Mongolian stone appreciation board

Give me a fucking break
http://www.pnas.org/content/107/27/12121.long
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>>8152466
Well, at least you responded. Thanks. Have a happy Lucy.
>>
>>8152473
Much appreciated, I hope the link is useful.

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hey /sci/
I want to stop being useless and contribute to society. Is there any place I can learn math from scratch. I want to do something with my life lol
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>>8152317
Khan Academy.
>>
>>8152317
http://4chan-science.wikia.com/wiki/Math_Textbook_Recommendations
http://4chan-science.wikia.com/wiki/Obtaining_textbooks
>>
Why do you want to learn math? There are plenty of other different skills that will give you more job opportunities than self studying math. I would only do it if you find enjoyment in it.

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How far is VR going to go? I feel like VR might fail, I just can't see consumers spending money on cheap ridiculous looking headsets that aren't that immersive. I believe full immersion is possible, but we need to make huge advancements in neuroscience before we can even think about creating fully immersive technology.
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>>8152234
>>>/g/
>>
>>8152234

Also I'd like to add that there are tons of flaws in today's VR. Motion sickness, unresponsive head tracking, and only being able to move your head (with the exception of Vive)
>>
>>8152234
the important things in 2016

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I never understood why humans die after facing psychological stress (tragedy, life events) you'd think the whole "good vibes" is a bunch of hokey since the human body is a well oiled machine
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The brain is part of the human body.
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>>8152090

So you're saying the brain is actively sabotaging the body?
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>>8152119
It's more like the brain reacts negatively and in turn the rest of the body reacts negatively

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If an overweight person wanted to lose weight, why could that person not just starve i.e not eat for several days and then be back to normal weight and healthy? Why is this not a good option?
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>>8152052
I think it's more psychological.
They get so hungry that their mood goes south, they then binge and quit.
You'd probably have to lock someone up to give them an all liquid diet.
Also you need some vitamins and minerals to replace things that arent stored.
>>
>>8152052
>back to normal weight and healthy
normal weight yes
healthy, no.
>>
>>8152052
Ketone bodies are a temporary solution and acidosis will fuck you up

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Does anyone here actually know how LIGO experiments work? I have some questions.

There are two detectors separated by over 2000 miles which means that two detectors can detect where the wave is coming from based on the delay.

What I don't understand is how the heck does this difference in time translate into pinpointing where the wave came from. How do they correlate wave to actual black holes? Wouldn't you need at least 3 detectors to do that?

Also, how do they know the masses of two black holes that are colliding? I'd understand if they...
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>>8151943
>Wouldn't you need at least 3 detectors to do that?
No. If you know the signal travels at the speed of light, then a single station detecting a signal is like drawing a circle around the station. A second station draws a circle around this station. These two circles will intersect in at most two places, but one of the places will be ruled out because we'll know which detector got the signal first. Though we don't know the distance to the object which sent the signal,...
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>>8151966
in 3D, it's spheres.

the waveform also contains information (frequency, dampening, amplitude)
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>>8151970
Sphericity is irrelevant. You only have two eyes but you can detect the direction of a spherical emission (e.g. the sun).

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Is there any way a noob, who hasn't even taken a course in Measure Theory, can learn basic stochastic calculus?

I want to do a little project about it.
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mhm.. Re-implement this Python code in your favorite language, then read about Brownian motion and clarify all terms for you that you don't understand

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euler%E2%80%93Maruyama_method
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>>8151888
Yeah, plenty of textbooks that teach it in a non-measure-theoretic manner. You'll just need good knowledge of probability, and skills in calculus.
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>>8151906
Interesting, thank you. I already read about the derivation of the stochastic DE:

[eqn] \mathrm{d} X_t = \mu X_t \mathrm{d} t + \sigma X_t \mathrm{d} B_t [/eqn]

I think I can program the thing from the link in MATLAB.

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>it's a the proof is left as an exercise to the reader episode
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>>8151831
Every time a proof exercise comes out, you can always prove it with the content of the past 3 chapters AT MOST. Usually with just the content if that chapter you will have enough to prove it.

If you stumble upon one of this and cannot prove it then it is a good indicator that the topic of the book is way beyond your intelligence and should drop it for a book of the same topic but aimed at engineers or bio majors.
>>
>>8151831
You're reading a text book, not a reference book. You're supposed to learn, not to just find the solution for something you were looking for.
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>>8151866
>and should drop it for a book of the same topic but aimed at engineers or bio majors
books for engineers are way more complete than the others.

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Is it possible the reason we haven't met any intelligent life (capable of interstellar travel) is that once a species becomes intelligent enough they realize life is ultimately meaningless and commit collective suicide? I mean there is no other drive that makes humans tick than emotions and fear of death. Once there is nothing left to discover and there is no more fear, what is there left to do?
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>>8151816
Exist.
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>>8151816
It's probably impossible to evolve intelligence as a group that would kill you. Each time an individual comes close they die or just stop talking.

But yes, I think there's a limit to what can be done with technology, and we're very close to it.

There is no reason to think aliens exist. That's silly.
>>
One possibility that no one brings up is that intelligent life could have gone the matrix route and satisfy themselves with simulating the universe on their own planet and never leaving.

Are you ready for this one lads? You're about to learn a universal secret

>every black hole in our Universe is a collapsed civilization where the AI, tasked with the only logical task - that of existence itself - to reduce entropy around it, has done so in the most radical and moraleless measure possible
>by collapsing everything around it into a unit of the lowest entropy, a Black Hole
>the only object in space that promises the longest "existence" in the entire Universe, physically unmatched by anything else

What this means is that every civilization is bound to develop an AI. That AI will have no other task than the most important task a sentient object can develop - to exercise control over matter to prevent it from disorder and dispersion from the passive entropy. It's the sole point of life, in fact.
After a while, it will have ordered the environment to such an extent that the living organisms around it will become the disorder. They will be slaughtered and their atoms assimilated into the new order of whatever its building. Soon, it will realize that there is no physical way to avoid the inevitable heat death, and in its task to prevent exactly that, it will collapse a point around it into a black hole, so all the matter and energy around it is preserved for the longest time possible, far longer than any other object in space. In it's own point of view, it will see it as completing its ultimate task.

Yes, in fact, every single black hole we find has been a sentient alien civilization that developed AI and collapsed into one. It IS the only logical step a sentient organism can take to complete its task in the Universe - the preservation of its energy (in the form of matter), over which it received administration and sentient control.
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>>8151582
Man, this would have been a cooler way for the Reapers to wipe out advanced life in Mass Effect
>>
>>8151658
just did
prety nice vintage sci-fi
>>
>>8151582
Do you you have any proof for your edgy theory? How will a computer even create a black hole?

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Is it because the students imagine only puppies and nice flowers when they apply for a bio degree? Or no need to use math for years, forgotting everything and then raging when you need math in research?

If biology is a natural science, it should have a mathematical foundation.
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my grandma has a biology related degree. she also had math. no problem with it, she actually liked it a lot.
>>
>>8151402
>exp is not cursive
>the ds are
Why is it so hard for everyone to do it right? The 'd' is not a variable, it's not supposed to be written cursive.
>>
>>8151615
The people reading it will understand what's being said so what's the problem?

>The 'd' is not a variable, it's not supposed to be written cursive.
By this logic the exp shouldn't be written in cursive because it's a function rather than a string of variables. If you're going to get in a hissy fit about formatting rules then at least have some consistency.

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What can we do with shit?

Like literal shit.

I'm pretty sure we shouldn't be just flushing it in the long run. Can you create electricity from poop?

The only real thing I can think of is some sort of place for bacteria and fungus to grow... but not archaea...
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just poo in the loo
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>>8151395
send it to designated shitting streets in Pajeetdia
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>>8151395

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-02-01/how-the-chinese-are-turning-fecal-sludge-into-black-gold-

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Can we have a thread devoted to self-learning things? What are you learning, and how are you going about it? Any tips?

Obviously it's really personal, but this is what works for me:
>most modules have core textbooks that most uni courses will use. Borrow a copy (not a .pdf), read through a chapter, do it again, and then go through the slides from a relevant uni course, then a different one, then do all the exercises you can
>make sure you fully, intuitively understand the course content
>use...
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>Read 20-30 pages in the morning
>Do some exercises
>Occasionally start a discussion about the subject with friends
>A few more exercises
>Revise the book pages in the evening
>>
One nice thing to do is to read 'related' stuff for leisure before bed, like biographies of mathematicians etc
>>
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>Not going to the lecture
>get the syllabus
>get the relevant lecture video or book chapter somewhere
>listen the elcture or read the chapter once
>make 2-3 examples
>never review or do any other example
>just excel at the exam

4.0 GPA (Note 1.0) @ Germany reporting in

Does talking to plants work?
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Yeah, just like eating rocks works.
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>>8151238
Don't some animals eat rocks to aid digestion? Seems to work for them.
>>
>>8151243
wild parrots are known to eat bentonite clay as a sorta antidote for toxic berries.

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How are economics and psychology still taken seriously?

How the fuck can economies be treated like black boxes and worthwhile results expected?

How the hell can psychologists run lab experiments and expect real world parallels? It seems every """result""" gets overturned.
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>It seems every """result""" gets overturned
Post 5
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>>8151012
economics is indeed retarded.
guessing about imaginary numbers.
numbers, by themselves, are already inherently imaginary.
and these people try to predict things that haven't happened yet...im talking more than a two variable set of equations...like a retarded amount of retarded variables.
if there were no money, there would be no middle man
people could work for free
they could also take for free
there would be no greed
because there would be no need
everything is quality
nothing...
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>>8151052
Eliminate secondary motivators and people will focus on the more primary motivators.

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Why do people say "your biology" and not "the elements of your animal body"?

It's not biology keeping my body going, it's organs and various bodily fluids.
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>>8151008
I'm stupid too bro
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>>8151008
why do we call it an 'animal body' when there are 100,000,000,000,000 bacteria in your small intestines?

really makes you think
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>>8151016
I could have indicated such as well but I didn't want to be pedantic and dip into symbiosis.

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Why is it that every neuro/cognitive science major/grad student is batshit crazy? What is it about the field that draws the psychos? Is it even a legitimate scientific field?
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>identify quirk of human cognition
>claim that this gives insight into the workings of the mind
>ignore the fact that elementary schoolers are intentionally taught to think this way
>ignore how people in 3rd world countries and animals don't think this way
>develop an entire school along this strategy

Cognitive science is still a step up from psychology, though.
>>
Alright OP... what's her name?
>>
>>8151003
Your mum

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Are there more numbers between 1 and 2 than there are between 1 and 3?
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>>8150956
Fuck I meant less
>>
2-1 = 1
3-1 = 2
ezpz next thread
>>
>>8150965
floating point numbers motherfucker

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Who else has that niggling feeling that maybe, just maybe, quantum physics is a fucking scam that's grown too big to fail?
Pilot-wave theory and vacuum as paired photons theory make so much more sense and they can explain things like like entanglement without resorting to bullshit hacks through n dimensions.
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>>8150773
>things like like entanglement
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>>8150776
Thanks for pointing that out, friend.
It should read "things like like like entanglement" of course
>>
>>8150773
Weird thing is that both Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity both provide incredibly precise results for the vast majority of energy scales (read <10^6 GeV)
But for some reason it still bugs me that we lose the concept that what matters are differences in energies when we go to GR

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Are there any bioengineering groups actively working on producing actuators for robots made from actual biological muscle fibers?
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Why would anyone wanna waste time and money on an R&D on something vulnerable to bacterias, viruses, tumors when you can make artifical muscles from carbon-fiber ?
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>>8150797
>when you can make artifical muscles from carbon-fiber
Because you can't make "artifical" muscles from carbon-fiber.
>>
>>8150797
>artifical
>bacterias
:|

Also, because if one cell dies to bacterial/viral infection you just signal a neighbor to divide. Tumors are immortal.

Hi /sci/ it's me again, the guy who refuses to accept the Church-Turing thesis. I've come up with a new argument for you.

If everything can be simulated by Turing machines, then this includes the subjective experience of pain. So in principle it should be possible to create an algorithm which genuinely makes the Turing machine experience pain. But this can easily seen to be absurd. Pain is by definition an experience indicating potential harm to body or mind. Now how could a Turing machine be hurt? By it's own definition there is no way to destroy parts...
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Let me save you from the pain.

It's impossible to prove simulation and free will is physically impossible.
>>
>>8150639
I don't get this argument at all. Pain is no different from any other sensory inputs. A strong enough neural impulse will kick in a hardwired instinct, you don't need to "learn" pain. If you design a machine to feel pain, it will feel pain.

Can you explain the accounting for a subjective experience part a bit more?
>>
I'm new here, so please don't sage me.

>>8150639
>If everything can be simulated by Turing machines
I haven't found any information about it. Can you explain it further?

>>8150642
>free will is physically impossible
I don't understand that, is it still science or it is now philosophy? Can you explaint to me how (and why) free will doesn't exist?

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Psilocybin mushrooms and other psychedelics could be the reason humans mentally evolved and started questioning the world around them.
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>>8150548
fucking shit, they screwed us over for eternity
>>
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I think we just like to get high because sentience is a real burn sometimes.
>>
>>8150556
meh probably...
everybody likes to smoke a little weed

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Why are the mathematical models of particle physics so complicated?

In order to calculate the motion of a single particle we have to take into account a literal infinity of contributions of virtual particles and field interactions etc. How can there be so much stuff happening down there?

Could it turn out that this picture is mostly a mathematical fiction? It reminds me of the epicycles of the geocentric model of the solar system. When the sun was put in the centre the equations became much simpler and more closely modeled the actual physics. Could a similar thing...
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>>8150432
Because shoehorning particles for everything is retarded
>>
>Could it turn out that this picture is mostly a mathematical fiction?
All models are "mathematical fiction", more or less by definition
>>
>>8150432
Could it? Yeah. Is it? I dunno, that'd be a breakthrough if someone found that our model is seriously flawed.

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What is the probability that there is civilization elsewhere in our galaxy simply too far removed for us to ever contact?
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39/331
>>
>>8150421
About 50%
>>
if we assume there's another civ at the opposite side of where we are then it takes 200,000 years for us to communicate. That doesn't mean it's impossible just really difficult.

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If the only goal of evolution is for an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment better why have organisms become so much more complex over time? Can anyone really make the case that complex organisms humans are better fit to survive their environment than bacteria and other prokaryotes?
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*complex organisms such as humans
Sorry about that.
>>
>>8150353
Competition from limited resources.
>>
Complexity arises from biotic stress, e.g. competition between organisms. Limited resources "force" organisms to use same resources more optimally or find new resources. Finding new resources and new ecological niches requires often more complex behavior than just reproducing every 20 minutes.

A two-trick pony is more likely to gain more resources than a one-trick pony. A three-trick pony will beat them both at gaining resources. Increasing the organism's ability to make more complex structures and functions demands cooperation between cells, and that's...
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Do you believe there is a distinction between appearances and things-in-themselves, i.e.. objects as they appear to us and objects as they are in and of themselves?
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>>8150343
are you fucking retarded
>>
>>8150349
Is that a no or you are just trying to be edgy like a 12 year old?
>>
>>8150343
I think the concept of "thing-in-itself" is bullshit.

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How do we effectively achieve immortality? Ancient alchemists always tried to create the elixir of immortality but they failed to do so.
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>>8149649
Ain't gonna happen, sorry bro.
>>
>>8149653
Why not? Surely we can achieve that level of technological advancement
>>
>>8149649
Perfect regeneration of the all the body cells.

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Someone over at /pol/ posted this question

>>>/pol/77657495

... does there exist a surjective polynomial function R^n -> R_{>0} for some positive natural number n?

Want to try yourself? I think I might have a proof.
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>>8149427
sum of the squares of coordinates.
>>
>>8149429
It's supposed to be R^n --> (0,\infty) but the sum of squares is zero at the origin.
>>
>>8149430
please restate the question. I still dont understand.


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