One thing is for certain. 999 Trillion years is coming >hurr durr universe is a few billions of years old >not taking in account of the infinate times the universe has 'big banged' Time is infinate, past is infinate, future is infinate. We are probably 999 trillion * 999 trillion years old now. Even More. There is no number big enough to actually state the age of all of this. YOu are all just tiny little subjects of time.
Most people believe the Earth is 3.9 - 4.5 billion years old. Also can anyone in this thread tell me if my research paper is good:
I. Introduction Body cover is diversified amongst Saurischian and Ornithischian dinosaurs containing scales, feathers and filaments. This is supported by fossil evidence preserving skin cover in dinosaur remains and tracks.
>>7650786 II. Saurischian Body Covering: Sauropodomoprha Under ideal circumstances tracks can preserve the texture of skin on underlying sediment. Kim’s first specimen from Deokmyeongri preserved impressions of scales ranging from 1 – 2.6 cm in diameter (Kim, pg.169). Scales vary in size and are arranged in a mesh pattern (Kim, pg.170). Tracks from Gainri contained scales 2 – 2.5 cm in diameter appearing more hexagonal in shape than pentagonal (Kim, pg.170). Similar findings are documented by Platt in tracks from Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. These tracks were found in fine-grained sediments characteristic of shallow channels (Platt, pg.249).Tracks were preserved as hyporeliefs; casts created from the deposition of sediments into the track cavity (Platt, pg.250). One footprint preserved skin texture consisting of raised polygons separated by thin grooves. Platt describes shapes similar to those identified by Kim of hexagons 0.75 – 1.2 cm in diameter (Platt, pg.256). Skin imprints from Titanosaurs in Patagonia, Argentina validate findings from Kim and Platt. Unlike tracks eggshells can preserve skin textures found on dinosaur bodies. Most of the shell specimens lacked skeletal remains, but matched skin and eggs containing Titanosaur embryos. Coria identifies tubercles (scales) varying from 100 – 800 um in size. Of the 78 catalogued patches Coria was able to identify 6 patterns. More commonly identified are tubercles of unequal size, spaced close together in uniform pattern. Another pattern of smaller tubercles radiating outwards from a central larger tubercle is also identified. Again tubercle shape is described as polygonal (Coria, pg.1528). These studies conceptualize Sauropod appearance. Kim and Platt agree upon polygonal-scale foot textures and Coria finds evidence suggesting these polygonal-scales occurred all over the bodies of Sauropods.
>>7650789 III. Saurischian Body Covering: Theropoda Saurischians are not only covered in scales; Theropod fossils provide evidence of feathered and filamentous covering. Feathers are rarely preserved making it difficult to discern whether or not feathered body coverings were common or a rare occurrence (Xu, Pg.288). Li reconstructs the plumage of Anchiornis huxleyi an extinct Theropod discovered in Liaoning, China. Fossilized feathers preserve melonosomes shape - organelles containing melanin – determinant of feather color. Portions of hindelimbs and forelimbs with feathers and their insertions were preserved (Li, pg.1369). Using a SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) Li was able to map the distribution and frequency of melonosomes to characterize plumage color. Li found grey, black, brown and red feathers with color variation producing separate shades (Li, pg.1370-1371). Body covering varies not only in structure, but in color as well. Color variety of feathered Theropods may suggest color variation amongst scaled Sauropods. Wellnhoffer examines several Archaeopteryx specimens with identifiable feathers. Finding flight feather structure, pattern, arrangement remains consistent among individuals (Wellnhoffer, pg.282). The Berlin specimen contained wing features similar to modern birds including; primary feathers, secondary feathers and contour feathers (Wellnhoffer, pg.292). Fossilized Theropods have been found with filamentous (hair-like) skin structures preserved. Rauhut documents a juvenile Megalosaurid with preserved filamentous plumage covering its tail and parts of its body. The longest of these hair-like filaments are located on the top-side of the tail with shorter hairs covering the extremities (Rauhut, 2012).
>>7650790 Fossils from Alberta, Canada yielded 3 Ornithomimosaur specimens of Ornithomimus edmonticus. Juvenile specimens contained a dense array of hundreds of filaments 2 mm long covering the entire body (Zelenitsky, pg.510). More mature fossils contained structures closely resembling feathers 55 mm in length. Forelimb feathers are shorter than those covering the body (Zelenitsky, pg.511). This indicates feather structure - filamentous or branching – varied with age (Zelenitsky, pg.512). One implication of this discovery is that juvenile specimens like the one examined by Rauhut can change their body cover as they mature. Body cover is further diversified according to age – at least among some Theropods.
>>7650792 IV. Ornithischian Body Covering Recent discoveries of Ornithischian dinosaurs have found bristle and hair-like integumentary structures. An early Cretaceous Psittacosaurus from Liaoning, China had bristle-like protrusions emerging from its tail (Mayr, pg.361). Preserved are 100 bristle-like structures positioned in a line along the tail, 160 mm long and 1 mm wide ending at the spine (Mayr, pg.363). A dark midline within the bristles indicates they could’ve been hollow. Mayr poses that these structures may be homologous to those found on Theropods, but concludes more evidence is necessary to substantiate this claim. Others have suggested these structures are modified scales (Mayr, pg.364). The Heterodontosaur Tianulong confucisusi also bears hair-like structures in patches located on its tail and sides of body. Like the Psittacosaurus the longest of these filaments are located along the length of the tail (Zheng, pg.333). Ornithischian dinosaurs like Saurischians supported a variety of body cover – filaments, bristles - at least among some individuals.
>>7650792 . As fossil records preserving body cover continue to grow our understanding of the appearance of dinosaurs is continuously refined. While the reviewed specimens don’t speak for all dinosaurs it shows they were capable of supporting a variety of body cover ranging from scales, filaments, feathers to more novel structures such as bristles found on Psittcosaurus. It’s dangerous to generalize dinosaur body cover as new findings can contradict these preconceptions. V. Conclusion Given available fossil evidence the body coverings of both Saurischian and Ornithischian dinosaurs are highly varied at least among some species. Evidence of integumentary structures preserved in tracks and eggs of Sauropods indicate they were covered in scales of varying shape, size and pattern. Likewise Theropod specimens show great variety from simple filaments to more complex structures resembling feathers. Finally, recent evidence from Ornithischian fossils indicates they too can support a wide range of scales, bristles and filaments.
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